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In 2009, the FDA required a black box warning (BBW) on bupropion and varenicline, the two commonly prescribed smoking cessation agents due to reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events. We investigated if there was a decline in use of bupropion and varenicline after the BBW by comparing the percent using these medications before and after BBW. We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2007 to 2014. The study sample consisted of adult smokers, who were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We divided the time period into “pre-warning”, “post-warning: immediate”, and “post-warning: late.” Unadjusted analysis using chi-square tests and adjusted analyses using logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the change in bupropion and varenicline use before and after the BBW. Secondary analyses using piecewise regression were also conducted. On an average, 49.04% of smokers were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We observed a statistically significant decline in varenicline use from 22.1% in year 2007 to 9.23% in 2014 (p value < 0.001). In the logistic (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.58) and piecewise regressions (Odds Ratio = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.41–0.99) smokers who were advised to quit smoking by their physicians were less likely to use varenicline in the immediate post-BBW period as compared to pre-BBW period. While the use of varenicline continued to be significantly low in the late post-BBW period (AOR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.31–0.64) as compared to the pre-BBW period, the trend in use as seen in piecewise regression remained stable (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.75–1.06).
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News Search | All News Topics > Tobacco Industry News Topics : By Country | By State ; Press Releases by Industry Channel > All Tobacco Industry Press Releases Philip Morris International Recognized as Global Leader for Corporate Action on Climate Change for the Third Year Running LAUSANNE, Switzerland--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Oct. 25, 2016-- Philip Morris International Inc. (“PMI”) (NYSE/Euronext Paris: PM) today is recognized as a global leader in its action on climate change. For the third consecutive year, the company is on the CDP’s ‘Climate A List’ for taking comprehensive action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change, and for its transparent disclosure process. CDP, formerly known as the Carbon Disclosure Project, is the leading international not-for-profit organization assessing the work of companies worldwide in the area of climate change. Thousands of businesses submit annual climate disclosures to CDP for independent assessment against its scoring methodology. PMI’s ranking places the company among the top 9% of corporations, known as “A Listers.” CDP’s Climate Change benchmark report is produced at the request of 827 investors with assets of US$100 trillion. Commenting on the results, PMI’s Head of Environmental Sustainability, Andy Harrop, said: “We’re very pleased to be included on the CDP A List again, and remain dedicated to playing our part in limiting global warming. Building on the reduction of 200,000 tons of CO2 since 2010 across our operations, and our continued action to promote sustainable tobacco production and environmental improvements across our value chain, next year we will announce a suite of new targets based directly on climate science.” “PMI encourages strong action on climate change and supported an ambitious outcome to COP21 in Paris last December. With the Paris Agreement now entering into force, we look forward to working with others in facing the challenges and opportunities of climate change mitigation and adaptation.” The Climate A List is released today in CDP’s report, Out of the starting blocks: Tracking progress on corporate climate action, which establishes the baseline for corporate climate action and recognizes that global corporations have started the transition towards a low-carbon economy, with some already capitalizing on the opportunities this affords. Companies’ progress on reducing greenhouse gas emissions is in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement and will be tracked against this baseline in future annual reports.